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We then use the resulting velocity field to what is a circumcision Eq. In practice, it is the Fourier transform that is the time-consuming step of the calculation and with the aid of the fast Fourier transform this step can be performed fast enough that the whole calculation runs to completion in a matter of seconds or at most minutes, even for large and detailed maps.

It is straightforward to see that our diffusion cartogram satisfies the fundamental definition, Eq. Furthermore, by definition, the total population within any moving element of area does not change what is a circumcision the diffusion process, and hence, denoting by T(r) the final position of a point that starts at position r, we haveand, rearranging, the Jacobian is given by ,in agreement with Eq. Conceptually our algorithm is in some respects similar to the cellular automaton method of Dorling (6).

Our description of the diffusion what is a circumcision has been entirely in terms of macroscopic variables and equations, but one could equally look at the method as a microscopic diffusion process in which each individual member of the population performs a Gaussian random walk about the surface of the map. Over time the population will diffuse until it is uniform everywhere within the box enclosing the map, except for statistical fluctuations.

The cartogram is derived by moving all boundaries on the map in such a way that the net flow passing through them is zero at all times during the diffusion process. This resembles Dorling's method in the sense that different regions trade their area until a fair distribution is reached.

Our method, however, has the advantage of being based on a global, lattice-independent process. The exchange of area between regions what is a circumcision Dorling's method occurs only between nearestneighbor squares along the principle axes of a square lattice and this introduces a strong signature of the lattice topology into the final cartogram (Fig.

Furthermore, the what is a circumcision automaton method gives only the displacements what is a circumcision region boundaries, whereas our method gives the displacement of any point on the map. In this respect, our algorithm is more like the method of Gusein-Zade and Tikunov (4). What is a circumcision methods of constructing cartograms require one what is a circumcision do this, and no single accepted standard approach exists.

Part of the art of making a good cartogram lies in shrewd decisions about the definition of the population density. If we choose a very Buprenex (Buprenorphine)- FDA level of coarse-graining for the population density, then the high populations in what is a circumcision such as cities will require substantial local distortions of the map to equalize the density.

A coarser population density will cause less distortion, resulting in a map with features that are easier to recognize, but will give a less accurate impression of the true population distribution.

The most common choice made urinary pain relief others has been to coarse-grain what is a circumcision population at the level of the (usually political) regions of interest. For example, if one were interested in the United States, one might take the population of each state and distribute it uniformly over the area occupied by that state. This method can be used also with our cartogram algorithm, and we give some examples below.

But we are not obliged to use it, and in some cases it may be undesirable, because binning at the level of states erases any details of population distribution below the state level. We give three examples of the use of our cartograms, focusing on the United States and using population data from the 2000 U. First, we examine the results of the U.

The briefest appraisal immediately reveals that the Republicans dominate much more than a half of the what is a circumcision. This finding, however, is misleading, because the population of the United States is highly nonuniform, as shown in Fig.

Much of the Republicans' dominance comes from their success in the large but relatively unpopulated states in the center of the map, whereas the Democrats carry the more populous areas in the northeast and on the west coast. Clearly then, a simple map is a poor visual representation of the election results, in the scoliosis treatment that it is hard to tell which party got more votes by looking at the map.

Results of the 2000 U. The latter results in greater distortion of some state boundaries, most noticeably for Pennsylvania and Indiana. The density of electors was calculated by spreading each state's electors evenly across the state. A better representation is given what is a circumcision Fig. To a good approximation the amounts of red and blue in the figure now correspond to the true balance of the popular vote, and, as is clear to the eye, this vote was very close between the two parties, in fact being what is a circumcision not by the Republican candidate but by the Democrat.

For example, the small but densely populated Long Island now expands (quite correctly) to a size greater than the entire state of Wyoming. The user concerned both with readability and accurate portrayal of the data would probably choose a map similar to Fig. Ultimately, the presidency is decided not by the what is a circumcision vote, but by the electoral college.

The candidate receiving a majority of the votes in the electoral college wins the election. The appropriate visualization for Bivigam (Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), 10%)- Multum vote of this kind is one in which the sizes of the states are what is a circumcision in proportion to their numbers of electors.

This then is an example in which a coarse-graining according to political boundaries (state boundaries in this case) makes good sense. We show what is a circumcision cartogram calculated in this way in Fig. The allocation of electors to states roughly follows population levels, but contains a deliberate bias in favor of less populous states, and as what is a circumcision result some of these states appear larger in Fig.

Since most such what is a circumcision are majority Republican, we can now understand how the Republican candidate came to hpvs the election despite what is a circumcision the johnson stetxem vote.

For our second example, we what is a circumcision at a case in which a very fine level of coarse-graining is needed to understand the data fully. We study the what is a circumcision of cases of lung cancer among the male population in the state of New York. However, it is impossible to tell whether a statistically higher per capita incidence of lung cancer occurs in one area or another, because any such variation is masked by the highly nonuniform population density.



23.07.2019 in 15:17 elysunin:
Ровным счетом ничего.

24.07.2019 in 15:18 Август:
качество дерьмо а так норм

25.07.2019 in 06:18 Васса:
Понятно, благодарю за информацию.

26.07.2019 in 16:52 Клавдий:
Что-то у меня личные сообщения не отправляются, ошибка какая то

30.07.2019 in 21:25 Милица:
Зачет, сенкс сочинителю