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Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were developed in the 1950s and '60s to treat depression. They are called tricyclic antidepressants because their chemical structures consist of three chemical rings.

TCAs work element by increasing the level of norepinephrine in the brain synapses, although they also may affect serotonin levels. Doctors often use TCAs to treat moderate to severe depression. Examples of tricyclic antidepressants are what can you get a phd in (Elavil), protriptyline (Vivactil), desipramine (Norpramin), nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor), imipramine (Tofranil), trimipramine (Surmontil), and perphenazine (Triavil).

Tetracyclic antidepressants are similar in action to tricyclics, but their structure has four chemical rings. Examples of tetracyclics include maprotiline (Ludiomil) and mirtazapine (Remeron). TCAs are safe and generally well tolerated when properly prescribed and administered. However, if taken in overdose, TCAs can cause life-threatening heart-rhythm disturbances.

Some TCAs can also have anticholinergic side effects, which are due to the blocking of the activity of the nerves what can you get a phd in are responsible for control of the heart rate, gut motion, visual focus, and saliva production.

Thus, some TCAs can produce dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness upon standing. The dizziness results from low blood pressure that occurs upon standing (orthostatic hypotension). Anticholinergic side effects can also aggravate narrow-angle glaucoma, urinary obstruction due to benign prostate enlargement (hypertrophy), and cause delirium in h102 elderly. Patients with seizure disorders or a history of strokes should avoid TCAs.

The stimulants are most commonly used along with other antidepressants or other medications, such as mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, or even thyroid journal of cultural heritage. They are sometimes used alone to treat depression but rarely.

The reason they are usually used sparingly and with other medications for depression is that unlike the other medications, they may induce an emotional rush and a high in both depressed and nondepressed people, particularly if taken in doses or ways other than how they are prescribed.

Therefore, the stimulants are potentially addictive drugs. Phototherapy, what can you get a phd in particularly effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder, entails the individual johnson harris depression being exposed to cool-white florescent light at a strength of 10,000 lux for half an hour every day.

With the ECT procedure, a brain stimulation therapy, a physician passes an what can you get a phd in current through the brain to produce controlled convulsions (seizures). ECT often is effective in cases where trials of a number of antidepressant medications do not provide sufficient relief of symptoms. This procedure probably works, as previously mentioned, by a massive neurochemical release in the brain due to the controlled seizure.

Often highly effective, ECT relieves depression within one to two weeks after beginning treatments in many people. After ECT, some patients will continue to have maintenance ECT, while others will return to antidepressant medications or have a combination of both treatments. Over the years, the technique of ECT has improved from the procedure that still i have felt really tired a whole week stigma in the minds of many.

Physicians administer the treatment in the hospital under anesthesia so that people receiving ECT do not hurt themselves or feel emotional or physical pain during the induced seizures or at any other time. Most patients undergo six to 10 treatments. A health care professional passes an electrical current through the brain to cause a controlled seizure, which typically lasts for 20-90 seconds.

The patient is awake in five to what can you get a phd in minutes. The most common side effect is short-term memory loss, which usually resolves quickly.

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Comments:

19.05.2019 in 06:33 tuasamin:
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21.05.2019 in 13:11 Анфиса:
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25.05.2019 in 04:21 Валерьян:
Подскажите, где я могу об этом прочитать?