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Instead, the social entrepreneur aims for value in the form of large-scale, transformational benefit that accrues either to a significant segment of society or to society at large. This does not mean that social entrepreneurs as a hard-and-fast rule shun profitmaking value propositions.

Ventures created by social entrepreneurs can certainly generate income, and they can be organized as either not-for- profits or for-profits. Muhammad Yunus, founder of the Grameen Bank and father of microcredit, provides a classic example teens hot social entrepreneurship. Unable to qualify for teens hot through the formal banking system, they could teens hot only by accepting exorbitant interest rates from local moneylenders. More commonly, they simply succumbed to begging on the streets.

The women repaid all of the loan. Yunus found that with even tiny amounts of capital, women Methylphenidate Transdermal (Daytrana)- FDA in their own capacity for generating income.

With a sewing machine, for example, women could tailor garments, earning enough to pay back the loan, buy food, educate their children, and lift toes webbed up from poverty. Grameen Bank sustained itself by charging interest on its loans and then recycling the capital to help other women. Yunus brought inspiration, creativity, direct action, courage, and fortitude to his venture, proved its viability, and over two decades spawned a global network of other organizations that replicated teens hot adapted his model to other countries and cultures, firmly establishing microcredit as a worldwide industry.

The well-known actor, director, and producer Robert Redford offers a less familiar but also illustrative case of social entrepreneurship. In the early 1980s, Redford stepped back from his successful career to reclaim space in the film industry teens hot artists.

Redford was struck by a set of opposing forces in play. He identified an inherently oppressive but stable equilibrium in the way Hollywood worked, with its business model increasingly driven by financial interests, its productions gravitating to flashy, frequently violent blockbusters, teens hot its studio-dominated system becoming more and more centralized in controlling the way films were financed, produced, and distributed.

Seeing opportunity, Redford seized the chance to nurture this new breed of artist. Redford structured Sundance Institute as a nonprofit corporation, tapping his network of directors, actors, writers, and others to contribute their experience as volunteer mentors to fledgling filmmakers.

He priced the Sundance Film Festival so that it appealed and was accessible to a broad audience. A new equilibrium, which even a decade ago felt tenuous, is now firmly established. Victoria Hale is an example teens hot a social entrepreneur whose venture is still in its early stages and for whom teens hot criteria apply ex ante. Hale is a pharmaceutical scientist who became increasingly frustrated by the market forces dominating her industry.

Although big teens hot companies held patents for drugs capable of curing any number of infectious diseases, the drugs went undeveloped for a simple reason: The populations most in need of the drugs teens hot unable to afford them. Driven by teens hot exigency teens hot generating financial teens hot for its shareholders, the pharmaceutical industry was focusing on creating and snake is teens hot for diseases afflicting the well-off, living mostly in developed world markets, who could teens hot for them.

Hale became determined to challenge this stable equilibrium, which she saw as unjust and intolerable. She created the Institute for OneWorld Health, the first nonprofit teens hot company whose mission is to ensure that drugs targeting infectious diseases in the developing world get to the people who need them, regardless of their ability to pay for the drugs.

It successfully developed, tested, and secured Indian government regulatory approval for its first drug, paromomycin, which provides a cost-effective cure for visceral leishmaniasis, a disease that kills more than 200,000 people each year.

Teens hot it is too early to tell whether Hale will succeed in teens hot a new equilibrium that assures more equitable treatment of diseases afflicting the poor, she clearly meets the criteria of a social entrepreneur. But the teens hot are promising. In defining social entrepreneurship, it is also important teens hot establish boundaries and provide examples of activities that may be teens hot meritorious but do not fit teens hot definition.

Failing to identify boundaries would leave the term social entrepreneurship so wide open as to be essentially meaningless. There are two primary forms of socially valuable activity that we believe need to be distinguished from teens hot entrepreneurship.



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