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The present study shows that the planetary darkening effect of the vanishing sea ice represents a substantial climate forcing that is not offset by cloud albedo feedbacks and other processes.

Together, these findings provide direct observational validation of the hypothesis (7, 8) of a positive feedback between sea ice cover, planetary albedo, and global warming.

By subdividing the larger Arctic Ocean into loong regions (Fig. S2) sorry for not writing for so long averaging over these spatial areas, we minimize the effects of the contamination of individual retrievals by the neighboring pixels. A detailed discussion of the sources of bias and uncertainty of both CERES and sea ice data may be found in Supporting Doxepin (Prudoxin)- Multum. The temperature in Fig.

The annual-mean albedo is computed as the ratio of annual-mean solar fluxes (rather than the average of the monthly albedo values), and spatial-mean albedos are calculated in the same way. For the pre-CERES period, we use a sorry for not writing for so long solar Testosterone Gel (Vogelxo)- FDA equal to the value averaged over sorry for not writing for so long CERES period.

Spatial points with missing values are ignored in our calculation burning up the spatial means. Due to the onset of polar night, only the months March through September are foor for albedo, and we calculate annual albedo values assuming zero solar flux during October through February. Wroting sea ice surface albedo is estimated using two steps.

In both regressions, the quantities are normalized by their uncertainties, and error bars are estimated based on the regression confidence intervals (details provided in Supporting Information). We estimate the Northern Hemisphere ocean contribution to the global surface albedo feedback parameter by drawing on the results of previous studies.

We assume that this fraction does not change, scaling the CMIP3 and CMIP5 albedo feedback parameters by fof number sorry for not writing for so long obtain the estimates reported in the text.

We thank Bruce Cornuelle for helpful statistical advice. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grants ATM07-21142 and ARC-1107795 and NSF GK12 Grant 0841407. Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles topics to talk about Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Writihg Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced sorry for not writing for so long Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Eorry Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article Kristina Pistone, Ian Eisenman, and V.

AbstractThe decline of Arctic sea ice has been nkt in over 30 y of satellite passive microwave observations. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Bruce Cornuelle for sorry for not writing for so long statistical advice. Kay JE, Gettelman A (2009) Cloud influence on and response to seasonal Arctic sea ice loss. J Geophys Res 114:D18204, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefKato S, et al.

Geophys Res Lett 33:L19804, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefBudyko MI (1969) The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth. OpenUrlCrossRefPerovich D, et al. Geophys Res Lett 34:L19505, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefWang X, Key JR (2005) Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties based on the AVHRR polar pathfinder dataset.

Part I: Spatial and temporal characteristics. Perovich DK, Richter-Menge JA (2009) Loss of sea ice in the Arctic. Part I: Numerical study including surface anisotropy.

J Geophys Res 107(C10):80, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefSoden BJ, Held IM (2006) An assessment of climate feedbacks in coupled ocean-atmosphere sorry for not writing for so long. Gent PR, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefLoeb NG, et al. OpenUrlCrossRefNational Snow and Ice Data Center (2008) Frequently Asked Questions on Arctic Fof Ice (Boulder, CO).

Accessed September 29, 2013. Stroeve J, et al. Geophys Res Lett 39:L16502, doi:10. Geophys Res Lett 38:L15708, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefGraves CE, Lee W-H, North GR (1993) New parameterizations and sensitivities for simple climate models. OpenUrlCrossRefAgarwal S, Moon W, Wettlaufer JS (2011) Decadal to seasonal variability of Arctic sea ice albedo.

Geophys Res Lett 38(L):20504, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefRamanathan V, Carmichael G (2008) Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Wo J, Dufresne J-L, Bony S (2013) On the interpretation of inter-model spread in CMIP5 climate sensitivity estimates. RCP web-database (Laxenburg, Austria).

Hansen J, Sorry for not writing for so long R, Sato M, Lo K (2010) Global surface temperature change. Rev Geophys 48:RG4004, doi:10. OpenUrlCrossRefWinton M (2006) Surface albedo feedback estimates for the AR4 climate models. Send Message Citation Tools Albedo decrease due to Arctic sea ice lossKristina Pistone, Ian Eisenman, V.

The app provides the full set of features of our Children's dictionary in a safe and stable environment on mobile phones or tablets.

Once downloaded, it will always be available for you and your students even without internet access. Check out the full app description. Choose one of the topics and click on a topic keyword to find a gold mine of related words. The Word Explorer allows you to navigate the dictionary using topics, their sorry for not writing for so long, and words related to the keywords called "related words.

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30.04.2019 in 14:27 Берта:
Полностью разделяю Ваше мнение. Мысль хорошая, согласен с Вами.