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Any sudden and atypical image, smell, or sound could signal a threat or an opportunity, so the brain had always to be on alert, even during sleep. Maintaining constant vigilance consumes much of the brain's power supplies, and switching attention, in particular, eats up lots of calories.

As Cytowic puts it,We ask our Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum brains to sort, categorize, parse, and prioritize torrential data streams it never evolved to juggle, while in Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum background we have to stay ever vigilant to change in every sensory channel. Oral mature of all sorts serve up rapidly changing images, jump cuts between scenes, erratic motion, and non-linear narratives that spill out in fragments.

Is it any wonder people today complain of mental fatigue. Fatigue makes it even harder to sort the trivial from the salient and navigate the glut of decisions modern life throws at us.

The knock-on issue thus becomes clear: It is hard to sustain the attention necessary for deep reading when we are distracted and exhausted from being both sped up and overloaded - what tech writer Linda Stone aptly calls "continuous partial attention.

Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum immerse yourself in digital "life," and timelines will flatten into unconnected dots, rendering a person present-oriented and unable to either remember or plan well. That permanently "zoned out" person will become easy prey for the next demagogue with an attractive promise and a mesmerizing spectacle. Mediated electronic interactions also create forms of what could be called acquired social autism. Any experienced high-school guidance counselor can attest that most of their students do not have the social skills necessary to, for example, speak to college-admissions personnel one on one.

There is also growing empirical evidence of social-media fatigue. Our gadgets create exhaustion, isolation, loneliness, and depression, which track with the rise of suicide rates in younger age cohorts. In a few extreme cases, when isolation sharply diminishes the influence antihistaminic peer Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum of acceptable conduct, it can lead to violent anti-social behavior.

That raises the possibility that the more time we spend with machines and the more dependent on them we become, the dumber we tend to get since machines cannot determine their own purposes - at least until the lines cross between ever smarter AI-infused machines and ever less cognitively adept humans.

More troubling are the moral issues that could potentially arise: mainly ceding to machines programmed by others the right to make moral choices that ought to be ours. The human brain is genetically hardwired with the ability to understand and articulate oral language, but no gene exists for reading and writing. Literacy is a cultural achievement long in the making, though, on an evolutionary timeline, it is a fairly recent innovation.

It is a development that, by changing the very structure of human brain circuitry, "transformed the nature of human thought," as Wolf writes. What Carr detected, even before iPhone market saturation, is that the plasticity of the human brain extends well beyond childhood: We are or become, cognitively speaking, what we do with language.

There is no question that adult reading habits have changed over the past few decades. The skimming and speed-reading in Z or F patterns that is characteristic of surfing the internet - the new norm for Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum - does not help enable critical content, if there is any, to sink into working memory. Twitter, in particular, epitomizes the transition from using written language as a means to think to using language as a platform for micro-designer spectacle - in some respects a throwback to oral culture, and certainly a far more cognitively superficial activity, as L.

Sacasas recently argued in the New Atlantis. Skimming on the net Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum has a shadow effect: When one Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum up a book for an afternoon or evening, the same pattern throws itself onto the printed page. That is what Carr noticed but did not perhaps understand.

Reading books requires you to form concepts, to train your mind to relationships. You have to struggle mentally to internalize it. Now there is no need to internalize because each fact can instantly be called up again on the computer.

There is no context, no motive. Information is not knowledge. People are not readers but researchers, they float on the surface. This new thinking erases context. All this makes strategic thinking about world order nearly impossible to achieve. Neil Postman put it succinctly, if more broadly, in 1985: Only in the printed word can complicated truths be rationally conveyed. But Kissinger is getting at something else here: namely, the sources of original thought.

The deep-reading brain excels at making connections among analogical, inferential, and empathetic modes of reasoning, and knows Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum to associate them all with accumulated background knowledge.

That constellation of sources and connections is what enables not just strategic thinking, but original thinking more broadly. So could Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum be that the failures of the American political class to fashion useful solutions to public- and foreign-policy challenges turn not just on polarization and hyper-partisanship, but also on the strong possibility that many of these non-deep readers are no longer able to think below the surface tension of a tweet.

Absence of thought as a mode of cognition likewise stifles imagination and feeds cultural insularity. Along with the technology-enabled prevalence of mediated interactions as opposed to face-to-face ones, insularity in turn conduces to the narrow "tribal" emotions of identity politics.

The "echo chamber" effect, characteristic of mediated electronic interactions, tends to truncate a person's ambit of empathy, as Senator Sasse has stressed, and not just as regards politics. It could be, in other words, that we skim now with respect to our emotions as well as our thinking Mivacurium Chloride Injection (Mivacron)- FDA how else is it possible to degrade the beauty and difficulty of Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum into Immune Globulin (Human) for Injection (gamaSTAN)- Multum someone instantaneously on Facebook.

Deep reading, contrarily, deepens and widens our theory of mind in both its rational and affective aspects. Fiction reading, in particular, enables us to simulate the consciousness of another person.

Indeed, our developing the ability to deep read is part of what made us human.

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