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One exception is factor VIII deficient, which is chemically depleted of factor VIII activity while retaining normal antigen content (i. The deficient plasmas currently available are factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and ATIII and are available in 1 mL and 50 mL vials for research applications.

Please inquire about bulk quantities. Haematologic Technologies deficient plasmas are shipped frozen on dry ice, and have a five (5)-year expiration when stored continuously at -70oC. This publication list is not all encompassing, and is only meant to provide limited examples of how Haematologic Technologies' products are used. We encourage you to search the literature for other examples pertinent to your experimentation, and to contact us with any technical questions.

Overview Properties References Sample Publications No overview available. Anaemia (American spelling, anemia) is a deficiency of red blood cells. It can occur either through the reduced production or an increased loss of red blood cells. Three essential elements must be present to produce red blood cells: iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid.

The most common cause of anaemia is iron deficiency, affecting more than 2 billion people worldwide. The estimated prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide is double that of iron deficiency anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia occurs when there is insufficient iron to create red blood cells The main groups at risk of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia are pre-school children, adolescents, pregnant and young women, which are times of increased physiological need for iron.

In people living in developing countries, iron deficiency tends to be due to insufficient dietary iron intake or to blood loss from intestinal worm colonisation.

In high-income countries, iron deficiency may result from a vegetarian diet, chronic blood loss, or malabsorption. The signs and symptoms of an iron deficiency depend on whether the patient is anaemic, and if so, how fast the anaemia develops. In cases where anaemia develops slowly, the patient can often tolerate extremely low concentrations of red blood cells ( Cutaneous signs of iron deficiency Angular cheilitisOther characteristic manifestations of iron deficiency anaemia may include:Iron deficiency may also predispose to bacterial and fungal infections such as impetigo, boils and candidiasis.

A full, or complete, blood count (FBC, CBC) is essential to detect anaemia. Iron deficiency can be present when blood count indices are normal. If anaemia is due to iron deficiency, the cells are smaller and contain less haemoglobin resulting in lowered red blood cell count or haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCH). Reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-Hb), which tends to be low in iron deficiency anaemia, can be used to monitor response to iron replacement.

Red cell distribution width (RDW) can reveal mixed iron and vitamin B12 deficiency as this results in red cells of variable size.

Ferritin is a measure of iron stores and is the most sensitive and specific test for iron deficiency. Normal or high levels of ferritin do not exclude iron deficiency, because ferritin acts as an acute phase reactant. Levels are higher in the presence of chronic inflammation (eg, rheumatoid arthritis) when erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein (CRP) are elevated. Ferritin is also more elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease and heart failure.

Older patients sometimes have unexplained iron deficiency anaemia. If bowel investigation is negative, bone marrow examination may be considered in undifferentiated cases. Most people with iron deficiency anaemia will need iron replacement therapy to correct the anaemia and replenish iron stores. The benefit of treating iron deficiency without anaemia is still uncertain.

Specific groups of patients like those with cardiovascular disease (with heart failure or angina) should receive red blood cell transfusions which will correct both hypoxia (low oxygen) and the iron deficiency. Red meat contains haem iron, which is readily absorbed. Non-haem iron sources may need the help of vitamin C in the form of fresh fruit or tablets. Calcium (in milk products) and tannin in tea, coffee and red wine, reduce the absorption of non-haem iron, so these should be taken several hours before a meal.

Conversely, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) enhances the absorption of iron when they are taken together. Iron supplementation is safe in pregnancy, infants, children and adults.

It can be used in iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disease. Iron preparations come in the form of tablets, oral liquids and injection.

Oral preparations are most commonly used. Enteric-coated and slow-release formulations are less well absorbed, but better tolerated. Taking iron with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may increase its absorption and help replenish iron stores more quickly. Lower dose preparations are less effective.